Orthographic, grapho-phonological, and morphological characteristics
of written words from French elementary textbooks


Manulex is an online searchable lexical database that provides the frequency of occurrence of 23,900 lemmas and 48,900 orthographic forms extracted from a corpus of 54 school reading manuals. The word frequency used in Manulex_infra and Manulex_morpho are based on Manulex.The Manulex website also allows the online consultation of the old version of Manulex_infra: Manulex infra Version 1.

Database publications

• Peereman, R., & Sprenger-Charolles, L. (2018). Manulex-Morpho, une base de données sur l’orthographe du français intégrant les morpho-phonogrammes. Numéro spécial « Lire-écrire : des savoirs scientifiques aux savoirs pratiques ». Langue Française, 199, 99-109.

• Peereman, R., Sprenger-Charolles, L., & Messaoud-Galusi, S. (2013). The contribution of morphology to the consistency of spelling-to-sound relations: A quantitative analysis based on French elementary school readers. Annee Psychologique, 113, 3-33. - - [PDF]

• Peereman, R., Lété, B., & Sprenger-Charolles, L. (2007). Manulex-Infra: Distributional characteristics of grapheme-phoneme mappings, infra-lexical and lexical units in child-directed written material. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 579-589. - - [PDF]

Related publications

• Ruiz, J.P., Lassault, J. Sprenger charolles, L., Richardson, U.A., Lyytinen, H. & Ziegler J.C. (2017). GraphoGame : un outil numérique pour enfants en difficultés d’apprentissage de la lecture. A.N.A.E., 148, 247-256.

• Sprenger-charolles, L. (2017). Une progression pédagogique construite à partir de statistiques sur l’orthographe du français (d’après Manulex-Morpho) : pour les lecteurs débutants et atypiques. A.N.A.E., 148, 233-243. DGE ac-noumea

• Lété, B., Peereman, R. & Fayol, M. (2008). Consistency and word-frequency effects on spelling among first- to fifth-grade French children : A regression-based study. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 952-977.

Other works that used the databases

EGRA [Early Grade Reading Assessment toolkit] (2017). This assessment protocol is based on the principles of Curriculum Based Measures (CBM). It assesses pre-reading and word reading/writing skills (invented and frequent) in French as well as reading and oral comprehension. Students are tested individually, using timed-tests to derive fluency scores.


EvalAide (2019). EvalAide (2019) assesses reading and reading-related skills in French, among first graders (beginning and middle of CP/G1) and second graders 2 (beginning of CE1/G2). The assessment’s objective is to identify individual students needs and adapt instructional content accordingly. The main scientific data and practical constraints that influenced its design are described in "Assessments & Interventions", a text co-authored by the Conseil Scientifique de l'Education Nationale (CSEN working group). For each subtest, the text provides the scientific basis underlying its development as well as its use to diagnose and remediate possible academic difficulties as early as possible.


GraphoGame Francais (project led by Johannes Ziegler). GraphoLearn is an educational App that helps students learn to read through game-based activities on smartphones and tablets. Originally developed by the Finnish University of Jyvaskyla, it has been adapted to the French language by Johannes Ziegler's team at the Cognitive Psychology Laboratory (LPC) with funding from e-Fran. Available on the App Store et Google Play.

Other databases related to learning to read and write in French

• Spelling success rate of 1200 words in Quebec children (grade 1 to grade 6) and frequency of occurrence of 14 800 words from school textbooks and children's literature: Stanké, B. et al. (2019). EQOL : Une nouvelle base de données québécoise du lexique scolaire du primaire comportant une échelle d’acquisition de l’orthographe lexicale. Corpus

• Gingras, M., & Sénéchal, M. (2017). Silex: A database for silent-letter endings in French words. Behavior Research Methods, 49 , 1894-1904.