Orthographic, grapho-phonological, and morphological characteristics
of written words from French elementary textbooks


Morphological codes

Characters 3, 4, 6 and 7 are used to indicate morphemic units (the other numbers correspond to 'machine' codes for phonemes, see 'phonetic codes'). The complete list of morphological units considered is provided in the table at the bottom of the page.

Nominal gender and number inflections: Code 3 indicates nominal gender and number inflections. For exemple, the word 'photos' is coded in the final by the morphogram '3s' to which the phonological code '3#' corresponds (the character '#' is used to code silent grapheme, see 'phonetic codes'). In contrast, in the word 'parfois', the final 's' does not correspond to a number inflection and so the final grapheme is simply coded 's' to which the '#' character corresponds. 

Monophonemic verbal inflections: Code 4 indexes verbal endings. For exemple, the ending of the word 'aiderai' is coded in the final with '4ai' to which the phonological code '4E' corresponds. In the word 'vrai', the grapheme 'ai' does not correspond to a verbal ending and is therefore coded simply 'ai' to which corresponds 'E'. It is important to remember that Manulex-Morpho only considers monophonemic G-Ph and Ph-G associations when coding verbal morphology. For example: '4er' (chant-er), but not '4ir' or '4oir' (fin-ir, sav-oir); '4ai' (je chant-ai) but not '4erai' (je chant-erai); '4ez' (vous chant-ez) but not '4iez' or '4issez' (vous chant-iez, vous fin-issiez).

Word endings heard in inflected/derivative forms (inflectional/derivational supports): Code 6 indexes the various inflectional or derivational word ending marks. For exemple, the final 's' of 'gris' is coded '6s' to which the code '6#' corresponds. The same is true for the 'd' of 'grand' (coded '6d') which supports an inflected form ('grande') and a derivation ('grandeur') .

Adverbs  in <(m)ent>: Code 7 indexes the 'ent' of manner adverbs in 'ment'. For example, the grapheme 'ent' in  'simplement' is coded '7ent' and its corresponding phonetic code is '7@'.

Units Codes
Gender and number 3
  -e, -s, -x  
Verbal inflections (monophonemic) 4
  Infinitive: -er  
  Present participe: -ant  
  Past participe: -é, -i, -u, -is, -t  
  Other conjugated forms  
  -e, -es, -ez, -ent, -est, -eu  
  -a, -as, -ai, -ais, -ait  
  -i, -is, -it, -ons, -ont  
  -u, -û, -ût  
  -d, -ds, -pt, -s, -t, -ts, -x  
Silent word-ending no longer 6
silent in inflected or derived words  
  -er, -et, -êt  
  -an, aen, -ean, -en, -enn  
  -ain, -aim, -in, -ein, (-en)  
  -on, -om, -oin  
  -un, -um  
  -b, -c, -ch, -ck, -d, -f, -g, -gu,  
  -l, -ll, -m, -n, -nn, -p, -q, -r,  
  -s, -ss, -t, -tt, -v, -w, -x, -z  
Adverbs ending in '(m)ent' 7